OCTOBER 19, 2013 11 AM

How to build a flying saucer

Class VI
This is a spitball. 

It is made by chewing paper and shaping it with the tongue. 

It is powered by flicking it with a finger using classical booger technique. 

Its range is a few feet.

It is suitable for signaling; you flick one at your friend in class to get his attention.

Class V
This is a Frisbee.

It is made by injecting plastic into a mold.

It is powered by flinging it with the arm.

It’s range is a few yards.

It is suitable for signaling and sport.

Class IV
This is a sonic UFO.

It is made by making a parabolic reflector out of graphene and kept expanded with an electrostatic charge.

Reflector - 48"


This one is actually for giving off artificial light for growing plants indoors.  You can see the lamp.  But the shape of the reflector is about right.  It doesn’t have to be a parabola.  It could be the cap of a sphere or a flattish pyramid for that matter.  It should have a reasonable simple mathematical formula.

You incorporate into the structure LED lights, a camera and an array of piezoelectric crystals.  A piezoelectric crystal has it atoms arranged in a non symmetrical way so it changes shape when you apply a voltage.   


Given an array of a lot of very small crystals next each other you can apply a voltage change and when they all change shape at once you emit a sound wave as if you had one big crystal. 

Or you can set them off in sequence and have the wave front go in any shape and direction you like.


Using this effect, sending the sound down from the flying saucer, will produce acoustic levitation.
DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has demonstrated acoustic levitation on a small scale and presumably has made this device. 


(Sorry about the diagrams falling apart when translated by Dreamweaver, but I think you get the idea.)

Of course this takes energy.  Energy sources are generally heavy and the lifting force is not so great for a given amount of power.  But there is one very light way to store energy.  You know that two conducting plates placed facing one another and close to each other separated by empty space or a non conducting material can store a charge.

The amount that can be stored is determined by the areas of the plates and the distance between them.  Bigger areas closer together collect more charge and store more energy. As you know graphene is a single atom thick layer of carbon atoms laid out in a honeycomb pattern.  They have recently discovered a form of glass that is 3 atoms thick.  Stack them up alternately, connect the graphenes and connect the glass:

And you can store a LOT of energy.  Let’s see.  My old 650 cc motorcycle used to get about forty miles to the gallon at sixty miles an hour doing about 500 RPM.  That’s 500 revolutions for sixty minutes or 30,000 revolutions at half of 650 cc’s or 15,000 revolutions times 650 cc’s or 15 revolutions at .65 liters per revolution or about 16 liters of explosion per gallon or 300 liters of explosion in a 20 gallon tank.  If it all went off at once it would probably blow up the car next you, and then the one next him and so forth.  Fortunately it has to be mixed with air or we’d lose whole cities.   Well I’m pretty sure the energy density of the condenser like that would be a lot greater than gasoline.  And it doesn’t have to be mixed with air.  One tiny flaw and it starts to short out and dumps all its energy.  So don’t be looking to have a car with a cheap condenser and an electric motor with a thousand mile range any time soon.  First it will have to be made safe.  But if you built it, it should provide plenty of energy to power your flying saucer. 

To remain on station such a saucer could manipulate its sound force or simply reorient itself in space, which would look a lot like a dish wobbling around at the end of a string.  In fact some claimed films of UFO’s do look like a dish wobbling on a string, possibly that’s because that’s what they are.

A commonly reported king of UFO sighing is a light that appears in the sky, wobbles around a bit and then vanishes.  This would be a rather sophisticated kind of camouflage.  Seeing the light and seeing it move leads to a visual phenomenon called “satisfaction of search.”  Your brain tells you you’re getting a lot of data so you do not look for internal detail in the light, anything surrounding the light or try to get a distance estimate by moving your head from side to side.  In such reports there is no color, no sound and no internal detail.  And for all the observer knows the “object” is moving rapidly away and maintaining constant apparent diameter by expanding either its actual shape or its illuminated portion. 

The range of such a device is limited to an atmosphere or a sea.  It is suitable for signaling, sport and reconnaissance. 

Class III,r:0,s:0,i:88

These are pyramids.  So far as I know they do not fly.  But the shape is about right for a class III flying saucer.  It is inherently stealthy.  Of course it has no aerodynamic lift to speak of but the class III does not need it.

To understand it’s propulsion we have to go back and look at condensers again.  We’ll move the plates well away from each other.  That makes it less effective, but it is still capable of storing charge.  Then we put it in a magnetic field.


Now we’ll fill the space between the plates with a conductor and reverse the electrical field.




The conductor completes the circuit.  The north of the magnetic field is up and electrons flow from the left to the right.  Now there is an ancient rule of thumb (sorry for the pun) involving a charge moving through a magnetic field.  If you point north with the index finger of your left hand, and point along the flow of electrons with your middle finger, your extended thumb will point in the direction of a force that the magnetism and electrical current induce in the conductor.  That’s what makes electric motors run.  And you can produce a magnetic field by running a current through a conductor and putting a force on it, that’s how an electromagnet works.  And you can generate current with a magnetic field and force through distance.  Any combination works and it’s all according to the same rule.  In this case the force is out of the illustration and toward you.  This is called the Left Hand Rule.

Now let’s get that conductor out of there and pretend that we have just this instant applied the electric charge:



Electrons cannot cross the gap, but for just an instant electrical charge does cross.  Soon the voltage in the system builds up until the charge cannot go further.  At this moment there is actually a negative charge on the right and a positive charge on the left.  And it’s stable that way, even after you break the circuit.  So we break the circuit and reverse the magnetic field.


Now the negative charge wants to go back to the left.  As it does it’s moving across a magnetic field which is opposite in direction from what it was before.  So once more the force is out of the plane of the illustration and coming at you.  Of course the force is tiny, and to my knowledge has not actually been demonstrated, but it has to be there the Left Hand Rule never fails.  But you can make as many of these contraptions as you like.  If you stack them up and tweak your electrical currents properly you can get a steady force of any strength you like.  If you place three such stacks at mutual right angles you can have the force go any direction you like.  If you put such a threesome at the points of a pyramid you have forces that will turn it and move it in any direction you like.  If you want to have a delicate cargo, like a person, you just put him in a box that has such plates facing each other across three directions.  Tweak the power and the person will not experience acceleration forces although you might be prudent about how much you spin the person. 

The kind of condenser we looked at earlier should supply power for standard use with maybe a backup pickle barrel reactor (like the ones powering the Voyager space craft) to charge things up if there is an emergency.  Otherwise the craft can be charged up by a mother ship.

The range is interplanetary. 

It is suitable for sport, reconnaissance and travel.

Class II


This was photographed on Mt. Washington in 1870.
It was taken with a stereopticon camera.  In other words two exposures were made at slightly different angles.  Even now faking a stereo pair of images would be difficult; either you would have to work with a model or create a 3D virtual image.  It is of course your standard “cigar shaped” UFO.

The reason for the shape is obvious now, although it would not have been obvious when the picture was taken (or faked by a very clever person). 


What the shape does is it permits you to have a nuclear power source and keep it at a maximum distance from your biological entity or at all events your information and command system. 

The propulsion mechanism is the same as that for a Class III saucer.

Its range is interstellar. 

It is suitable for travel and as a mother ship for the Class III. 

Class I
When you travel, always travel light.  However there are times when a gentleman must dress for dinner, so carrying along a few extra necessities just must be done.  And for those with sophisticated taste, being without the resources of a galaxy would be like living in some wretched little village where they don’t even have broadband internet.

So this is a galaxy with an active nucleus.  If it is a galactic size flying saucer it was made by pushing a lot of stuff together over interstellar distances or finding a wild galaxy and shaping it to suit something’s needs. 

It is powered by what is believed to be a black hole at its center.  Material falling into the black hole can emit these jets.  If they are not symmetrical, then the whole galaxy must up stakes and move.  It takes time, but patience is a sign of exalted class.  So you push stuff into the center, presumably calculating just the right amount and just the right angle, and off you go. 

Its range permits you to visit other galaxies.  Right now we are off to pay a visit to our good friend and neighbor the Andromeda galaxy.  There should be lots of nice cultural exchange, trade in exotic goods, exchange of vital resources, maybe a few solar systems sold off.

Or maybe we will get into a horrible intergalactic war.  All we know for sure is that’s where we are headed. 

Anyway, the range is cosmic.

It is suitable for travel of the most sedate kind.


There is a teeny tiny little flaw. 

When the universe began it was very small and dense.  Then it expanded at a rate for exceeding the speed of light.  Of course it should have gone the other way, it should have collapsed as a black hole.  Time seems to have moved backward.

At the other end of the size scale, if you were to take a photon sufficiently small its effective mass – courtesy of E = MC2, together with its small size would make it a black hole.  It should collapse.  But Steven Hawking has demonstrated to most folks’ satisfaction that it in fact would pop open and cease to be a black hole.  Time moves backwards again.

If, in its peregrinations, the world had collected a black hole it its center, we would live on a planet that at some speed, possibly quite slowly, was collapsing in on itself.  However on September 14, 1963 it was announced in Nature that the world is in fact expanding, and – get this – its rate of expansion is exactly the same as that of the universe itself, allowing for the difference in size.  Once again time seems to be running backward, and the mechanism that governs a black hole seems to be the same on all scales.  I haven’t seen that one mentioned since then.

It is possible to measure more or less the energy output from the sun, and the source of that energy is said to be the fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms.  This reaction produces neutrinos at a known rate, but when they look for the neutrinos they aren’t there, at least half of them aren’t there.  That was a puzzle, which has been resolved by discovering that neutrinos change over time so they must have a finite mass or they would travel at the speed of light, so they could not change.  Using that assumption the absence of the neutrinos has been explained away. 

But wait! Light travels at the speed of light.  And light changes; it oscillates.  And now they are saying that neutrinos oscillate as well.  So there is not reason to think they do not travel at the speed of light, except of course that this would mess up the idea that the sun is lit by hydrogen fusion, which would mean that SOMETHING ELSE is powering the sun.  It sounds like a black hole running backward in time to me.  There is some fusion because no doubt a lot of the stuff popping out of the black hole is hydrogen, which under those conditions really would undergo fusion. There ought to be an explosion, rather that the elegantly stable energy flow we see, but the hydrogen is coming out at a rate commensurate with the expansion of the universe.  Some day enough helium will accumulate to fuse into heavier elements and the sun will blow up in the end.

So if we go back and look at that galaxy, we see that it is not a black hole at all.  Of all the matter going in, more than 99% comes right back out.  It’s no stretch to say that more than 100% comes out. 

When they look at the area around the core of the galaxy they see that most of the matter has been swept away by the energy coming out of the jets.

So it’s rather a puzzle how anything can get into the hole to form those jets, unless you assume that time is running backwards.

This year they were looking at the radiation from the accretion disc of a galaxy and found a dip in the amount of energy.  This repeated at regular intervals, so it had to be SOMETHING circling the center, either a wave or an object in the accretion disc.  They waited for the rate of the dipping to increase to demonstrate that it was something falling in.  Only the rate decreased.  Something was falling out.  They assure us that it was a ripple, not an object, because otherwise they would have to conclude that time runs backwards.

But nobody has ever hinted of that.  They can’t.  It’s too scriptural.  It’s bad enough to start with the Big Bang, as in AND GOD SAID LET THERE BE LIGHT, AND THERE WAS LIGHT.  But if you run time backwards we are coming out of a universal black hole.  The universe does not end in a nice dull nearly vacant idleness.  Instead time gets all mixed up, the graves gape, the sky rolls up like a scroll, entities that have long since vanished because they could exist only when energy and information intensities, and presumably spiritual intensities, were high.

So don’t be too sure that you can drop something into the core of the galaxy.  But we’re going to find out soon.  There is a dust cloud that’s going to get there within the next few months.  This may get very interesting.  I doubt there is enough of it to cinderize us with heat.  There might be a rush of cosmic rays, but they do not travel in straight lines, the magnetic field of the galaxy twists them all over the place, so they will by and large not arrive for a long time, and when they do arrive it will be spread out over a long time.  So I think we’ll be ok.  If I’m wrong and we die in the next few months let me apologize in advance.

No doubt you know what a “Dyson sphere” is.  It is a fictional piece of engineering, a shell that encloses the sun.  That way all the energy of the sun can be captured for human use and not just the tiny bit that happens to hit the earth.  A simpler bit of engineering might be a “Dyson Swarm,” a huge number of satellites in solar orbit that accomplish the same thing.  Anyway, there are maybe twice as many starts in the Andromeda Galaxy as in the Milky Way.  It could be that most of our stars have been captured by Dyson Sphere’s.  Furthermore the Milky Way is a “barred galaxy.”  Much the matter lies in a bar that lies athwart the center of the galactic disc.  About a third of galaxies seem to have such a bar.  We are assured that this can be a natural part of the natural process of development of a galactic disc.  In fact here:
is a link to a digital simulation.  But I’m not quite sure.  Maybe the bar for some reason is an advantage and the result of tampering.  So we may be a developed galaxy with the technology to go exploit other galaxies.  We may be off to colonize the Andromeda galaxy.

If that is true, then humans are certainly not the dominant life form in the galaxy.  Maybe they don’t see much use for us.  On the other hand they haven’t destroyed us yet, so maybe they are benign and their intentions are peaceful.  Of course they don’t seem to be in the mood to do us any favors.  If they indeed are monitoring us they certainly know what kind of demographic disaster we are – quite unnecessarily – making of ourselves.  If they warned us I’m sure they would have more impact than I have had.  So they don’t care.  Or indeed somehow or other they might have set it up. 

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